中国足球历史

1.历史与发展

1)初期情况

2)投资与发展

3)远景规划

2.联赛与制度

1)中超联赛框架与概述

2)中超联赛简史

3)中国足协杯赛

3.当前中超联赛俱乐部的排名
4.参考资料

 

 

1.历史与发展

1)初期情况

 

虽然中国早在20世纪50年代就开始发展全国足球锦标赛,但足球运动直到20世纪90年代才真正成为民族产业。此后,该项运动得到大力支持,成为中国发展最快的运动之一。始于2004年的中超联赛(一级)和中甲联赛(二级)目前是中国足球的主要赛事(见第2部分)。

 

2)投资与发展

 

近年来,在“超级球迷”习近平主席的大力倡导下,中国足球产业得以蓬勃发展。2015年,习主席宣布中国足协脱离中央政府管理、打造多元化市场,将足球发展列入国家重点工作之中 – 并提出了不受市场波动影响,价值8500亿美元的10年投资计划。事实上,中国明确表达了渴望在不远的将来成为“足球一流强国”的愿望,希望届时能有一支打得赢国际锦标赛的球队。为此,中国国家足球队还吸纳了大量国外球员和经理人。

 

中国的快速发展广受赞誉,得益于政府和企业在国际市场的巨额投资,庞大人口基数下的浩大球迷群体和媒体的大力助推,中国国际体育产业的迅猛发展不足为奇。据统计,中国每年在足球相关产业上投入的资金高达数十亿美元,涉及国际球星代言、球员转会和球迷用品等。中国的大企业纷纷为球队和足球活动直接注入巨资,例如,马云(阿里巴巴集团控股有限公司创始人)斥资12亿人民币(约合1.93亿美元)买入广州恒大队50%的所有权。另外,随着中国数字媒体市场的发展,涌现出一代新型广播公司,这些公司和全球各体育产业合作,在中国宣传球员、球队、联赛和各种赛事。随着国际足球巨星大卫·贝克汉姆成为日渐壮大的中超联赛国际形象大使,“贝克汉姆品牌”已成为最知名的合作案例。

 

习主席在2014年提倡将足球作为学校的必修课外项目,足球产业的发展已渗透到国民教育之中。到2017年,20000所学校将配备新的足球场和训练设备,总体目标是培养100000名年轻的国家级球员。此发展得到全国体育消费推动工作部门和公共健康促进工作部门的大力支持,具体可参见政府《关于加快发展体育产业促进体育消费的若干意见》(见第4部分)。

 

3)远景规划

随着足球文化与教育领域的不断融合,中国宣布了到2050年成为“足球一流强国”的具体战略。该战略设定的目标包括:截至2020年在全国建立70,000个球场、截至2030年实现全国每万人拥有一个球场、截至2030年实现男子联赛亚洲最强,以及截至2050年申办世界杯(实际上,我们从“少星足球”得知2030这一梦想便有可能实现)。更多关于中国足球发展计划的详情,参见第4部分(参考资料)中的链接:《中国足球改革发展总体方案》(50条计划)

 

 

2.联赛和杯赛制度

1)中超联赛简史

中超联赛始于2004年,第一届有12支球队参赛。由于过去管理方面的疏漏,足球产业历经了参与率低、财物损失等困境。中超联赛应运而生,意在唤起公众重新关注足球产业。在成立的前几年,一些俱乐部在新管理层加盟和管理方式调整的影响下或合并或解散,中超联赛陷入球队不稳的泥潭,苦苦挣扎。不过,自2009年起,中超联赛每年都有16支球队参加,每个赛季都实行“升二降二”制度,即从中甲升两队,并降两队至中甲。

2010年,中国政府依法逮捕了前足协副主席,从本质上改善了国家足球产业的整体形象。顶级国家俱乐部也开始进一步投资国际赛事、与切尔西队的迪迪埃·德罗巴(Didier Drogba)和尼古拉·阿内尔卡(Nicolas Anelka),以及前巴萨中场塞杜·凯塔(Seydou Keita)等球星签约,并从海外聘请新的俱乐部经理人,如日本国家队教练冈田武史(Takeshi Okada)、阿根廷国家队教练塞尔吉奥·巴蒂斯塔(Sergio Batista)和前尤文图斯经理人马尔切洛·里皮(Marcello Lippi)。

最近加盟中国球队的重量级球员包括奥斯卡(Oscar)、胡尔克(Hulk)、拉维奇(Lavezzi)和阿莱士·特谢拉(Alex Teixeira),知名教练包括斯文·戈兰·埃里克森(Sven-Göran Eriksson)、法比奥·卡纳瓦罗(Fabio Cannavaro)、法比奥·卡佩罗(Fabio Capello)和盖瑞·怀特(Gary White)。

2)中国足协杯赛

中国足协组织的国家淘汰制比赛称为中国足协杯赛,前身为1956的全国足球锦标赛。每年在中国足协杯赛之前,都会举行赛季前联赛-中国足协超级杯,相当于英格兰社区盾杯。中国足协杯于2012年打出了“全民参与,全民足球”的新口号,吸收业余球队参与比赛。

3.当前中超联赛俱乐部的排名

中超联赛当前球队名单(根据中超联赛2004年成立以来截至2016年末的总体比赛结果、得分和进球进行排序)

山东鲁能泰山

北京中赫国安

上海绿地申花

天津泰达

广州恒大淘宝

长春亚泰

广州富力

辽宁宏运(俱乐部)

江苏苏宁

河南建业

上海上港

重庆当代力帆

河北华夏幸福

延边富德

天津权健

贵州恒丰智诚

 

4.参考资料:

https://www.theguardian.com/football/blog/2016/feb/06/china-football-revolution-world-cup

http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-36015657

www.bbc.com/sport/football/36242298

http://www.bbc.com/sport/football/36246519

http://nielsensports.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/2016-Nielsen-Sports-China-and-Football.pdf http://

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Football_in_China

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_Super_League#History

 

Football in China

 

  1. History and Development
  2. Industry Beginnings
  3. Investments and Growth

iii. Future Plans

  1. League and System
  2. CSL Structure and Outline
  3. A Brief History of the CSL

iii. Chinese Football Cup Competitions

  1. Current CSL Club Standings
  2. References

 

  1. History and Development

 

  1. Industry Beginnings

 

Though China began developing a Chinese Football Championship as early as the 1950s, the sport was truly introduced as a national industry in the 1990s, and has become one of the most well-supported and fastest growing sports in the country. Beginning in 2004, the Chinese Super League (the 1st tier), alongside China League One (the 2nd tier), now stands as the primary structure of competitive football in China (see section 2).

 

  1. Investments and Growth

 

In recent years, there has been a huge boom in the football industry in China, led largely by President Xi Jinping, a keen football enthusiast. In 2015, Xi announced his intention to detach the national football administration from central government, diversify the market, and make the improvement of football a key national priority – delivering a plan with 850 billion USD worth of investments to be made over ten years, regardless of relevant market turbulence. Indeed, China has expressed the desire to become a “world football superpower” in the near future, with a team capable of winning international championships, and as a result there has been an influx of foreign players and managers to national Chinese teams.

 

As a nation lauded for rapid development, it is not surprising that the growth of the international sporting industry has been extremely efficient in China, backed by heavy government and business investments in a sizeable global market, as well as the support of a huge population in inspiring immense fandom and media traction. Estimates suggest that billions of dollars are embroiled in football-related business across China each year; including international star player endorsement deals, player transfers, and fan paraphernalia. Such deals have manifested in national conglomerates investing huge sums of money directly in teams and football campaigns, including, for example, Jack Ma’s (the founder of Alibaba Group Holding Ltd.) 1.2 billion RMB (193 million USD) deal for 50% ownership of the Guangzhou Evergrande team. Furthermore, with the growth of the Chinese digital media market, there exists a new breed of national broadcasters that have come into partnerships with various global sports industries to promote players, teams, leagues, and events across the country. Most notable of such partnerships is the now established “Beckham Brand”, as the internationally renowned football star David Beckham has become the overall ambassador of the growing Chinese Super League.

 

Development of the industry has also trickled down into national education, as in 2014 Xi Jinping instigated football as a compulsory extracurricular in schools. It is estimated that by 2017, 20,000 schools will be equipped with new football pitches and training facilities, with an overhead aim to produce 100,000 new national players. This development is backed by a nation-wide boost in sports consumption and the promotion of public fitness, outlined in the government “Opinions on Accelerating the Development of Sports Industry and Promoting Sports Consumption” (see section 4).

 

iii. Future Plans

Along with the injection of football culture into the education sphere, China has also announced a specific strategy to becoming a “world football superpower” by 2050. Said strategy involves targets such as installing 70,000 pitches across the country by 2020, one pitch for every 10,000 people in the country by 2030, the men’s league to be the best in Asia by 2030, and a bid for the men’s World Cup by 2050 (in fact we have been told at Little Football Stars that this may well happen in the 2030s). For more detail into China’s growth plans, links to the pragmatic 50-point plan can be found in section 4 (References).

 

  1. League and Cup System

 

  1. A Brief History of the CSL

 

Beginning in 2004, the first CSL season involved 12 teams, and aimed to reinvest public attention in the industry that had suffered low attendance and financial losses in light of past administrative indiscretions. In the first few years of establishment, the CSL struggled with the fluctuation of teams involved, as certain clubs merged and broke apart in light of new management and restructured administration. However, since 2009 the league has run with 16 clubs each year, with two clubs promoted from China League 1 and two relegated to China League 1 each season.

 

In 2010, the Chinese government arrested former guilty CFA Vice Presidents, which ultimately improved the national image of the entire football industry. As a result, the leading national clubs began investing further in international competition, signing stars such as Chelsea’s Didier Drogba and Nicolas Anelka, former Barcelona midfielder Seydou Keita, and introducing new club managers from overseas, such as Japanese national team coach Takeshi Okada, Argentinian national team coach Sergio Batista and former Juventus manager Marcello Lippi.

 

More recently, big names to have come to China include players Oscar, Hulk, Lavezzi, Alex Teixeira and coaches Sven-Göran Eriksson, Fabio Cannavaro, Fabio Capello and Gary White.

 

  1. Chinese Football Cup Competitions

 

The national knockout competition organised by the CFA is known as the Chinese FA Cup, and dates back to 1956, then known as the Chinese National Football Championship. Each year, the Chinese FA Cup is preceded by a Chinese FA Super Cup, a pre-season league competition equivalent to the English FA Community Shield. More recently, in 2012, amateur teams were added to the cup league tables, with a new slogan: “Game For All”.

 

 

  1. Current CSL Club Standings

 

List of current teams in the Chinese Super League (in order of position at the end of 2016 with regards to overall match results, points, and goals since the CSL inception in 2004)

 

Shandong Luneng Taishan

Beijing Sinobo Guoan

Shanghai Greenland Shenhua

Tianjin Teda

Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao

Changchun Yatai

Guangzhou R&F

Liaoning Huyun (F.C.)

Jiangsu Suning

Henan Jianye

Shanghai SIPG

Chongqing Dangdai Lifan

Hebei CFFC

Yanbian Funde

Tianjin Quanjian

Guizhou Hengfeng Zhicheng

 

 

  1. References:

https://www.theguardian.com/football/blog/2016/feb/06/china-football-revolution-world-cup

http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-36015657

www.bbc.com/sport/football/36242298

http://www.bbc.com/sport/football/36246519

Football Industry in China

http://nielsensports.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/2016-Nielsen-Sports-China-and-Football.pdf http://

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Football_in_China

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_Super_League#History